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Wang et al.
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Here we attempt to reproduce this event in tree rings of an absolutely dated bristlecone pine specimen Pinus longaeva from the White Mountains, USA and a subfossil oak Quercus sp. We cannot confirm the presence of a cosmic-ray event as suggested at — BCE and we discuss potential implications to earlier results.
Carbon half-life years is produced by the reaction of secondary thermal neutrons derived from the primary cosmic-ray flux on nitrogen 9. This 14C is incorporated into the terrestrial carbon cycle within 1—2 years as is most convincingly demonstrated through the14C signal of anthropogenic nuclear testing Miyake et al.
The CE event was first confirmed in a bristlecone pine record 4and indeed, this work encouraged many subsequent studies looking for both these events and searches for other events.
Büntgen et al.
Another rapid event at BCE has been reproduced in different records and is therefore widely accepted 712 Separately, other rapid changes that may show more complex solar dynamo phenomena or combinations of solar and galactic events at BCE and BCE have been observed 14 An important task in demonstrating a convincing global signature of a 14C excursion is to reproduce the event with tree rings from different geographic locations.
We endeavored to reproduce the 14C sequence of Wang et al. First, we measured 14C on tree rings of a 4 swiss valleys anti aging pine from the White Mountains in California.
This tree species is well known for a remarkably long lifespan often exceeding several thousand years.
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The SH remnant specimen was collected at the Sheep Mountain high-elevation site and rigorously cross-dated with the site master chronology spanning BCE— CE Second, we developed 14C tree-ring series from subfossil oak collected from a gravel pit near Champey-sur-Moselle.
We obtained 14C measurements on tree rings from a bristlecone pine for a 4 swiss valleys anti aging interval — BCE 42 years and from an oak for — BCE 41 years. These 14C series are developed from a year specimen of bristlecone pine — BCE and a year oak tree — BCEwhere the rings are absolutely dated via cross-dating with original site master chronologies.
This experiment allows us to observe if the Wang et al. Figure 1 and A 4 swiss valleys anti aging Table 1 present our results in a Δ14C plot 19 against known age of the tree rings. A year periodicity with an amplitude of ~5 per mil on a declining trend of Δ14C 18 has clearly appeared. We compared our series to those of Wang et al.
Intriguingly, the Chinese wingnut 14C measurements agree with the general trend of our results, except for the 2 years of — BCE, where Wang et al. The excursion proposed by Wang et al. To confirm that the records are statistically different, we performed t test on each set of data.
Because the Chinese wingnut specimen was dated with 14C wiggle-matching, we developed longer 14C series covering two decades prior to BCE where the calendar dates might shift due to wiggle-matching.
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Nevertheless, we do not observe any excursion consistent with Wang et al. In the case of the wingnut samples, the age reported by ref. The green squares show data from Debrecen, the blue circles data from ETH, and the red triangles show the results of Wang et al.
The gray area shows the international calibration curve IntCal20 11 with 1σ error, which is based on a spline fit to the IntCal20 at 5-year resolution. Full size image Our results raise some important points regarding radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating.
However, the dating approach applied by Wang et al. The annual ring variations of bristlecone pine from the alpine environments are limited by the cold and extremely dry climate The pine growth is not comparable to Chinese wingnut, which has a completely different ecological amplitude, different climatic controls, and grows ~10, km away.
Besides, the wingnut specimen contained only ~60 rings. Further, Wang et al. We believe that it a 4 swiss valleys anti aging important for cross-dating to be carried out according to well-established methods and practices The wingnut specimen was 14C dated prior to the spike study of high-resolution 14C measurements. As described 8the wingnut rings were counted, and four 5-year groups sampled for a wiggle-matching test.
Wiggle-matching technique ties knowingly spaced-age differences e. The 4-point sequence of 5-year groups fitted to IntCal mean 8 is not reliable.
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The 14C variation observed by 8 could deviate from their assigned age by several decades or more. We observe an apparent year solar cycle in our data as shown in a wavelet analysis of Fig. This cycle shows a 14C variation up to ~5 per mil over one solar cycle. This is somewhat larger than that observed in recent trees 9although similar to the solar-cycle effects observed by Jull et al. Shades denote the dimensionless continuous wavelet transform power-spectrum density. The color bar placed on the right represents the squared power of the wavelet transform and the numbers indicate the spectrum power level dimensionless.
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High values in a few time intervals x-axis with some periodicity y-axis show that the amplitude of a signal with that periodicity emerges from noise in those years. The area where edge effect influence distorts the picture is shown in lighter shades. The signal attributable to solar the solar cycle is marked with yellow fields. The black line outlines the variance significant relative to red noise.
A similar result can be obtained for the European Oak series shown in Supplementary Fig. Full size image Our two independently derived records do not confirm the 14C event at — BCE described by Wang et al. Therefore, unless this can be independently confirmed in other trees or other proxy records for cosmogenic isotopes 1213we recommend excluding this result from any list of Solar Proton Events.
We also szem részei that the wingnut rings are not from the interval — BCE. The result of Wang et al. Since our results are generally consistent with the trend of Wang et al.
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Methods The bristlecone wood specimen used in this study Supplementary Fig. Salzer in July at the elevation of m asl on the Sheep Mountain ridge The ring widths of this specimen were measured on a Lintab system. The year ring series is correlated with the year master chronology from Sheep Mountain spanning from BCE to CE, which is composed of tree rings from remnant wood and overlaps with rings from living trees The Sheep Mountain chronology also correlates well with two other long bristlecone tree-ring chronologies from the same mountain range confirming the dating accuracy of the chronology.
Further details of master chronology construction are published in refs. The cross-dating and the master chronology development were performed at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona. The SH remnant specimen has no locally absent rings and includes a very prominent frost ring formed in BCE that is a 4 swiss valleys anti aging present in the same year in one other sample of the a 4 swiss valleys anti aging chronology. The annual growth layers were separated through a 4 swiss valleys anti aging with a razor blade and grounded to μm mesh.
Each powdered sample was converted to α-cellulose using standard procedures 23 The oak sample CHEY originated from an accumulation of 17 subfossil oak trunks found during gravel extraction in the Moselle River valley The annually resolved tree-ring width series of 14 tree trunks are synchronized into a year mean chronology.
This site chronology is overlapped with the master oak chronology for South Germany The cross-dating was performed at University of Freiburg.
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Sample calculation and data reduction were done using the standard BATS software Oak samples were converted to α-cellulose using the procedures described in ref. All data are public information accessible from the authors on request.
Büntgen, U. Tree rings reveal globally coherent signature of cosmogenic radiocarbon events in and CE. Miyake, F. A signature of cosmic-ray increase in AD from tree rings in Japan.