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Függelék 99 XII. A kéziratok: teljes átírt és modernizált szöveg Kategorizált szöveg és a kéziratok magyar fordítása MS Harley értekezés MS Harley vers Additional Manuscript kézirat In detail, a critical edition of the transcriptions and translations of the manuscripts is presented, resolving some of the contradictions and incoherencies between various transcriptions.

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A methodology is presented for revealing the meaning of terms and a complete synoptic terminology index is produced to facilitate the understanding of the jargon of the manuscripts. An analysis of the structure of the manuscript was prepared, and found terms is presented based on recent research, finding also similar techniques in other longsword fencing traditions. A set of drills are selected that represent many of the aspects of the manuscripts.

Keywords — English longsword, MS HarleyCotton Titus, Additional Manuscriptmethodology for analysis of fencing books All images used in this work is known to be in public domain by the author.

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Benjamin G. Bradak and Mr. Brandon P. Heslop, whose book insipred me to start studying English longsword, and to my late father-in-law, Mr. Terry Brown and Mr. Mark Geldof and Mr. Dániel Gerlei and Mr. Ken Mondschein and Mr. Greg Mele for submitting Mr. The parts of this paper that are meant for support of later work are created in English and Hungarian in parallel.

Later works, such as Silver, and Swetnam,allure anti aging cream tracking my order only a few paragraphs related to longsword, are not considered as part of the Medieval tradition. MS Harley Man yt wol One that will… Bibliographic data of the manuscript as presented below is based on Brown, which contains all the necessary bibliographic details.

Further details are provided under Nuvoloni, and Voigts, Physical properties. It is composed of 3 major units differing in format and provenance.

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The second unit contains that texts related to longsword fencing. The written space of the longsword texts is about x 88 mm, with brown ink ruler lines lines per page, resulting in a less than 5 mm line height. This unit was written most probably by two scribes or copyists. The common name Man yt woll may refer to the poem only and even may contain a transcription mistake.

In this paper I would like to focus on Medieval English Longsword. The manuscript content can be split to about 37 parts, differing in their content and format; see in detail in British Library Catalogue: MS Harleiancatalogue information.

Most of the content parts are related to alchemy and metallurgy 17 parts and medicine 18 parts. Language The longsword texts are written in 15th century Middle English. According to British Library Catalogue: MS Harleiancatalogue informationthe known owners allure anti aging cream tracking my order the texts are: 1.

Thomas Byaed, vicar of Bockerill: Owned, 16th cent. Robert Burscough, Archdeacon of Barnstaple: Owned, late 17th-early 18th cent. Samuel Knott, d Rector of Combe Raleigh, county Devon: Owned and annotated Considering the provenance and also the fact that the text contains considerable portions related to a Franciscan from Hereford, Ralph Hobey, the origin of the fencing treatise can be also of West England Brown, Said text of Ralph Hobey is from Nuvoloni, However, since Harley is a compilation, this gives us a little clue if the longsword texts are earlier or later than this date.

Most authors, namely Nuvoloni, and Voigts, date it to 15th or 16th century. Geldof, sets the date to the first half of 15th century, based on the authors of works bound together in the collection. However, according to Hester, the longsword texts can be dated as early svájci anti aging cukrászda early 14th — early 15th century. I share the opinion of Hester regarding the date of the development of the teachings not of the manuscripts!

English mercenaries and commanders reached Iberia and Italy in the pauses of the Hundred Years War, and later, Italian masters opened schools in England during the 16th century, Rocco Bonetti, Vincentio Saviolo Evangelista,p.

Meyer: Von den Legern oder Huten. Hester, based on chipped blades from the period.

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However, I have not found a metallurgical analysis of swords from the 13th to 16th century period. Based on the above the manuscript must have been made before the 16th century, and, considering the stability in phraseology and techniques with the other manuscriptsthe jargon must have been settled and spread through England by then; conclusively, the teaching could have been developed the latest during the first half of the 15th century.

The fencing work is part of a larger collection, bound together into a compilation. The major subject of the works is history of Britain, of particular monasteries, etc. Physical properties Parchment and paper, appr. The segments of the compilation were created during the 13th to 15th century, Content The manuscript content can be split to 6 content parts.

Full text of "Aquila"

It is unclear if they were part of a larger text or just comments. The fencing texts are written in Middle English. The rest of the text is in Medieval Latin and French. The recorded history starts from the early 17th century, when Sir Robert Cotton baronet of Connington, originally from Huntingdonshire placed this compilation into the Titus section. The fencing work can be dated to 14thth century; however, the size, the language or the binding with other works does not provide us more information.

Physical properties. Vellum parchmentx mm roll.

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The text is written in Early Modern English. The text contains a signature of a certain Allure anti aging cream tracking my order. Ledall supposedly from a allure anti aging cream tracking my order John Ledale. Skaife,p.

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It is, however, it is highly probable that the text was not authored by any Ledall, but confirmed or proofed only according to Wiktenauer: Ledall Roll Additional MSn. Ledall was born and lived in York. The only subsequent known record is fromwhen the Rev. Therefore, we can just place York as the only place of the possible origin.

According to the British Library catalogue the creation date is the first half of the 16th century. However, all these dates are only speculations because there is no evidence that the text can be attributed to that J. The golden era of longsword in England can be set to the early 14th to midth century.

Одним глазом он следил за тенью, другим - за ступенями под ногами. Вдруг Халохоту показалось, что тень Беккера как бы споткнулась. Она совершила судорожный рывок влево и вроде бы закружилась в воздухе, а затем снова прильнула к центру лестницы. Халохот сделал стремительный прыжок.

Major historical events in parallel to development of technology of this period are listed below. The historical facts below are collected from various sources. The superiority of Scottish long spears defeated the English army, composed of mostly heavy cavalry using strategies of the period Battle of Haldon Hill.

The knights, armed with longswords and poleaxes, as well as men-at-arms using bills, were arranged sparsely so that they had sufficient room to use their weapons, dismounted and mounted quickly. This gave flexibility against the Scottish fighting in closed formation and with minimal cavalry.

Hundred Years War Main weapons of knights both English and French : short lances, longswords and poleaxe; armours were improved but not yet sufficient against longswords. Knights fought mostly dismounted, using cavalry for rapid relocation of the forces when necessary. Cost of longsword training was high, and could be paid by knights only.

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Battle of Crécy chivalric ideals of French knights lead to confusion and tragedy; use of gunpowder In the pauses of the major battles, English nobles, knights and soldiers spread all over Europe, served as mercenaries, military commanders or even claimed to be kings in various countries: John Hawkwood in Venice and in papal forces Anon. Battle of Agincourt the superiority of the English strategy and tactics was proven; the use of longbows was decisive War of Roses started The plate armours provided a level of protection for which allure anti aging cream tracking my order was less effective than pole axes or pikes.

The training of longsword was also more demanding than training archers or men-at-arms using bills, pikes, halberds or other pole weapons. As a consequence, the importance of longsword is gradually reducing. Safety of travellers and smaller settlements were jeopardized by released mercenaries and veteran soldiers after the War of Roses who became bandits use of gunpowder became commonplace longswords still presented status and appeared on tournaments This is double checked in Froissart, since this is a clear sign that the development of armours reached a maturation where longswords could cause less harm as well.

It is also surprising since at Agincourt longbows were successfully used — however, bows are affected by weather conditions as well. The weapons taught yet included longsword Sloane MS It is not obvious if the three manuscripts use the same length weapon. However, Geldof,pp.

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