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It publishes original essays — written in English,French and German — dealing with aspects of the Hungarian past and present. Multidisciplinaryin its approach, it is an international forum of literary, philological, historical and related studies.

Each issue contains about pages and will occasionally include illustrations. All manuscripts,books and other publications for review should be sent to the editorial address.

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Only originalpapers will be published and a copy of the Publishing Agreement will be sent to the authors ofpapers accepted for publication. Manuscripts will be processed only after receiving the signedcopy of the agreement.

EditorialaddressH Budapest, Országház u. Schorske ed. Wallas Hg. To appreciate the ambivalent identity of Hungarianliterature in perhaps the most formative period of its historical developmentit is essential to examine the complex cultural historical contextin which the national literature came to consciousness.

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In the last century Ferenc Toldy traced the origins of Hungarian literarymodernity back to the year -which saw the publication of four importantworks by György Bessenyei - and this date has been broadly accepted eversince by literary historians as a working point of departure. Linked to thisperiodization is a conventional perception of modern Hungarian literature asa child of the Enlightenment. Thus, according to the multi-volume A magyarirodalom története put out by the Hungarian Academy: "Művelődés- ésirodalomtörténetünk első, tudatosan világi eszmei mozgalma a felvilágosodásvolt [ Ill, pp.

If is, on this basis, asgood a starting point as any, its equation with the concept of a Hungarian"Enlightenment" is beste anti aging creme der welt für männer more problematic. There are two key reasons for treating the conventional characterizationof the period in Hungarian literature as a "belated" age ofEnlightenment with caution. The first concerns the content of the conceptitself. While one cannot, in Edmund Burke's phrase, with a single termdraw up an indictment against a whole century, there are certain socialand intellectual constituents without which any working concept of theEnlightenment is meaningless.

While there wereundoubtedly isolated figures in late eighteenth-century Hungary whose concernsand aspirations shared much in common with the values of the WestEuropean Enlightenment, their achievements and influence do not provide arepresentative basis for a comprehensive and coherent reading of the period inHungarian letters.

The case of Bessenyei is particularly illuminating here. His work increasinglyreveals closer parallels with the cultural relativism and interest in nationalspecificity of Herder, than with the intellectual universalism embodied inVoltaire's ideal of the citoyen du monde.

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Significantly, remains a crucialdate for our understanding of just such a contrast. In this year Bessenyeipublished the first version of his Az embernek próbája, a highly revealing andideologically charged misreading of Alexander Pope's Essay on Man, a classiccompendium of some of the central aphorisms of the Enlightenment.

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Theessential discontinuity between the two works is already anticipated byBessenyei's title: for, in sharp contrast to the pragmatic optimism of Pope,Bessenyei will go on to describe human existence as an ultimately hopeless"trial" próbaand closes with the distinctly counter-Enlightenment claimthat: "tsak tudatlanság zúg az emberekbe. Initially attracted by the ratio-empiricism of Voltaire,Bessenyei becomes increasingly preoccupied with questions of beste anti aging creme der welt für männer, identity and specificity, and ends his days, as the "bihari remete",deeply suspicious of the value of enlightened thought.

As Kirakedes, Bessenyei's"noble savage" in his last major literary work, Tarimenes utazásasays to Trezeni, the ruler of an "enlightened" state with obviousechoes of Maria Theresa : "Oly igaz az, hogy mentül tanultabb, bölcsebb azember, annál kevesebb vígsággal élhet; ellenben mentül oktalanabb, annáltöbb örömök közt lakozik.

The second problem with the designation "Hungarian Enlightenment" inconnection with the period is a historical one. By the end of theeighteenth century most of the important work of the Enlightenment hadalready been done, and Kant's famous phrasing of the question "Was istAufklärung" in is already at least partly retrospective.

By the end of thecentury most of the key tenets and values of the Enlightenment were in crisisand a new intellectual moment and cultural sensibility was emerging.

There is a shiftof focus from the head to the heart, from reason to feeling, reflected inRousseau's famous statement from the Lettres Morales: "To exist for us is tofeel; and our sensibility is incontestibly anterior beste anti aging creme der welt für männer our reason. Thus it is the crisis of the Enlightenment,rather than the Age of Reason itself, which forms otthoni ránctalanító arcpakolás cultural-historicalcontext in which Hungarian literature comes of age as a modern, self-consciousdiscourse.

Indeed, far from seeking belatedly to rehearse the old arguments ofthe Enlightenment, the aspirations of the Hungarian literati prove to beremarkably in tune with the preoccupations of the new moment. Historians of culture continue to debate the character, periodization andconceptual definition of this new cultural moment at the end of the eighteenthcentury.

The terms of definition most commonly used - Sturm und Drang,"Age of Sensibility" and, beste anti aging creme der welt für männer notoriously, "Pre-romanticism" - have, for avariety of reasons, all proved problematic. Sturm und Drang is too limited inlocal and historical focus to identify the continuities across national boundaries between writers as diverse as Sterne, Prévost, Goethe and Kármán; while"sensibility" - clearly a key term in the lexicon of the new age - remains toobroad: what is, after all, at stake is a particular, and supposedly "new", kindof sensibility.

The difficulty with "pre-romanticism", on the other hand, stemslargely from the teleology it inevitably imposes by reading the second half ofthe eighteenth century through the achievements of the first half of thenineteenth. Perhaps the most productive characterization of the period is acontemporary one: Schiller's definition in Über naive und sentimentalischeDichtung of his own age as sentimental in contrast to the essentialnaivety of the ancients.


Schiller describes the "sentimentality" of the modern writer in terms of analienation from nature, society, and the objects of his own discourse. While theEnlightenment had seen no tension between the workings of human reasonand rational nature, between the interests of the individual and society, by theend of the eighteenth century man and nature, self and society, subject andobject would increasingly be perceived as irreconcilable oppositions.

This is thedilemma faced by Schiller's modern, sentimental poet. The sentimental poet's"feeling for nature is like that of a sick man for health. This is particularlyevident in the translation projects of the young Kazinczy.

Kazinczy begins withGessner's Idyllen, which Schiller, in Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung,had cited as an example of sentimental idyll. He then turns to J. Miller'sSiegwart, again given special mention by Schiller as an example of sentimentalelegy, and also translates various texts by Wieland, whom Schiller cites in thecontext of sentimental satire, praising him for his "seriousness of feeling" incontrast to the excess of "intellect" Schiller finds in Voltaire.

Kazinczy hadalso intented to translate Goethe's Werther, considered by Schiller to be theone text in which "everything which gives nourishment to the sentimentalcharacter is concentrated", and, as Kazinczy himself states in his preface toBácsmegyey, it was only circumstance that forced him to translate Kayser'sRoman in dem Geschmack der Leiden Werthers instead.

The significance of Schiller's concept of the sentimental for late eighteenthcenturyHungarian literature is not, however, above all a matter of literaryinfluence.

hungarian studies - EPA - Országos Széchényi Könyvtár

For Schiller describes a cultural moment of which Hungarianliterature is already an active part. The literary topoi, which Schiller's notion ofalienated "sentimentality" seeks to understand, are all widely represented inHungarian literature in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Thus the cult ofsolitude, born of the sentimental subject's sense of isolation, finds expressionmost famously in the poetry of Csokonai, but also, among countless others, inthe work of Kármán and the later Bessenyei.

The sentimental projection of thealienated self onto the objects of nature is a major characteristic of the poetry ofnot only Ányos and Dayka, but also the "classical" Révai.

Furthermore, thesentimental alienation of subject from object, of the poetic self from the world hecan never approximate, is also reflected in Kazinczy's preoccupation with style asa virtue in itself, over and above the objects of literary representation.

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Alienatedfrom the natural and social world, the sentimental writer's experience of reality isalways through the world of signs. Thus Werther's love for Lotte is mediatedtextually rather than sexually through the ecstasy the couple share in readingKlopstock, Gessner and Ossian.

  1. Не было ни страха, ни ощущения своей значимости - исчезло .

Poets "will either be nature, or they will look for lost nature" Schiller. Inthe first case their poetry will be "naive", in the second "sentimental". Themodern poet may try to overcome his sense of alienation by attempting torestore the "lost" and naive harmony enjoyed by the ancients with their"simple" and "natural" world, but this itself is an inherently sentimentalimpulse.

HUNGARIAN STUDIES No. 2. Nemzetközi Magyar - EPA

The sentimental dilemma and the quest for its naive resolution are,as Schiller so persuasively argues, two sides of the same "modern" coin. Concomitant with the sentimental cults of solitude and subjectivity in lateeighteenth-century Hungarian literature we can identify the inception of asearch for a more "naive" sense of community and authenticity which was toprove particularly formative for the subsequent development of the nationalliterature.

The literary object of this search is probably best described byHerder's concept of Naturpoesie, although it must be remembered thatHerder's influence in late eighteenth-century Hungary was highly mediated.

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For Herder, Naturpoesie embodies an organic unity with the poet's immediatecommunity and national traditions, lost to the modern Kunstpoet who is theproduct not of an organic, but an imitative culture, devoid of its own coherentand collective identity.

In Hungary, especially after the centralizing andGermanizing reforms of Joseph II, the pursuit of such an identity wouldbecome one of the key cultural and political preoccupations of the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ideiglenesen le vagy tiltva

In Hungarian literature it findsexpression above all in three forms of "naive" recovery. First, we can observeit in the attempt to retrieve the lost or forgotten glories of the national past inorder to foster a sense of collective historical purpose. Such efforts range fromBessenyei's historical tragedies, through Ádám Horváth's Hunnias, the epic"Conquest" fragments of Csokonai, Ráday and Virág, to the cult of"Mohács" poetry in the s.

Second, we can discern the pursuit of identityin the attempt to recover and cultivate national traditions and customs as asource of shared, common values. These undertakings run from Orczy's Abugaczi csárdának tiszteletére to Gvadányi's Falusi nótárius. Third, we candiscover it in the attempt to restore a lost language of naturalness, simplicityand immediacy as opposed to the imitative, modern language of refinement fentebb stíl championed by the likes of Kazinczy.

This language is increasinglymodelled on the living example of Hungarian folk poetry, as an equationof the "authentically" national with the völkisch "népi" becomes one of thekey constituents of the national-cultural self-definition.

From Révai's call forthe collection of ancient and folk poetry in to Kölcsey's famousassociation of the national and the popular in Nemzeti hagyományokRICHARD ACZELthe naive identification with the idiom and values of folk culture would lay themajor foundations of a cultural populism that is beste anti aging creme der welt für männer very much alive today. Evidence of a renewed interest in ancient and folk poetry can be foundthroughout Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century, from ThomasPercy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry to Herder's Stimmen der Völker andthe widespread cult of Ossian.

In English literature Wordsworth's LyricalBallads of are perhaps the supreme artistic achievement of a in Schiller'ssense "naive" preoccupation with "rustic life" and the "language really spokenby men. WhenWordsworth, in his famous Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, relates his interest in"humble and rustic life" to a desire to reveal "the primary laws of our nature",his use of the first-person plural evokes not a national, but a universal humancommunity.

For Wordsworth, the poet is not a bard addressing his nation, but"a man speaking to men".

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The Hungarian interest in folk culture - especially inthe first four decades of the nineteenth century - is more exclusively related tothe revelation and cultivation of distinctively national values and identity. Thish particularly clear in the work Ferenc Kölcsey who could claim in that "avaló nemzeti poézis eredeti szikráját a köznépi dalokban kell nyomozni.

While Kölcsey's earliestodes show the unmistakable influence of Csokonai, between and hefalls under the markedly sentimental influence of Kazinczy.

Kölcsey himselfwould state in retrospect that "ban és ben sentimental-lyrischvoltam" and much of his best poetry of the s continues to draw upon thelexis of Young and the tone and disposition of Ányos and Dayka. Kazinczy'svalues also inform many of Kölcsey's critical evaluations during this period,such anti aging forradalom végső étvágy pres his admiration for "az új századok manierját [ In this context the ideals of literary populismrepresented a poter tial cultural basis for a common national identity extendingbeyond the boundaries of private property and social class.

Here the influence is nolonger that of the "sentimental" Kazinczy, but almost entirely of the "naive"Herder.

In one important sense Nemzeti hagyományok actually goes a goodway beyond Herder - for whom there had been no "Favoritenvolk" - in itsinsistence on the detrimental effect of foreign influences on the formation of thenational character. Even the "heroic" age of the fiveteenth century Hunyadis iscriticised on this basis: "Fájdalom, mi már akkor is idegen befolyásnak adtunkhelyet.

By the s, literary populism had triumphed as the most influentialcultural ideology in Hungary. Its most accomplished poetic representative was,without doubt, Sándor Petőfi. Petőfi represents the epitomy in Hungarianliterature of Schiller's naive genius.