Androtropin pro ghr secretagogue anti aging faktorok
Corresponding author. Correspondence to: Andrzej Bartke.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Role of growth hormone GH in mammalian aging is actively explored in clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies. The age-related decline in GH levels is variously interpreted as a symptom of neuroendocrine aging, as one of causes of altered body composition and other unwelcome symptoms of aging, or as a mechanism of natural protection from cancer and other chronic diseases.
Absence of GH signals due to mutations affecting anterior pituitary development, GH secretion, or GH receptors produces an impressive extension of longevity in laboratory mice. Extension of healthspan in these animals and analysis of survival curves suggest that in the absence of GH, aging is slowed down or delayed.
The corresponding endocrine syndromes in the human have no consistent impact on longevity, but are associated with remarkable protection from age-related disease. Moreover, survival to extremely old age has been associated with reduced somatotropic GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling in women and men.
In both humans and mice, elevation of GH levels into the supranormal pathological range is associated with increased disease risks and reduced life expectancy likely representing acceleration of aging.
- Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging - Harvard Health
- Szemvörösség elleni szemcsepp
- 100 legjobb szuperélelmiszer az öregedés ellen
- Swelling in the arms and legs edema Joint and muscle pain For men, enlargement of breast tissue gynecomastia Increased risk of certain cancers Clinical studies of HGH treatment in healthy older adults have been relatively small and short in duration, so there's little to no information about the long-term effects of HGH treatment.
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The widely advertised potential of GH as an anti-aging agent attracted much interest. However, results obtained thus far have been disappointing with few documented benefits and many troublesome side effects. Possible utility of GH in the treatment of sarcopenia and frailty remains to be explored. Many of these changes are very pronounced, readily detectable, and thoroughly documented.
However, interpretation of the biological meaning of these changes is far from simple. Thus, age-related decline in circulating levels of a particular hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol 17 beta, testosterone, or growth hormone GH can be viewed as yet another symptom of aging, as one of its potential mechanisms, or as a protective adaptation to alterations in physiological functioning and disease risk in the aging organism.
Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging
In this article, we will provide an overview of the intricate relationships between GH and aging with emphasis on recent findings. In the human, age-related decrease in plasma GH levels begins soon after attainment of final height and full physical maturation, and continues during the ensuing decades of life [ 123 ].
Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 IGF-1 also decline during human aging, but the decrease is less step than the changes in GH levels, with considerable overlap of values measured in young adults and in elderly subjects [ 7 ]. In relating the age-related changes in IGF-1 to the levels of GH, it is necessary to consider that not all of the circulating IGF-1 is derived from GH-dependent hepatic secretion and that peripheral and tissue levels of IGF-1 are differently regulated and thus might exhibit different pattern of changes with age.
Regulation of biosynthesis of these proteins and their IGF-1 related, as well as IGFindependent effects, are outside the scope of this article. The interested reader is referred to recent reviews [ 89 ].
We will return to the topic of biological actions of IGFBPs in the discussion of the impact of somatotropic axis on longevity of laboratory mice. Aging is normally associated with increased adiposity and progressive androtropin pro ghr secretagogue anti aging faktorok of muscle mass and, thus, effects of GH on body composition were interpreted as reversal of important symptoms of aging. Increases in bone mineral density at some of the examined sites of the skeleton and increased skin thickness in the elderly GH-treated men [ 10 ], combined with the evidence for numerous benefits of GH replacement therapy in younger individuals with GH deficiency GHD [ 1112 androtropin pro ghr secretagogue anti aging faktorok, 13 ], helped to increase and sustain interest in GH treatment as an anti-aging intervention.
However, further studies identified various side effects of GH treatment, including joint pain, edema, carpal tunnel syndrome [ 1415 ], and indicated that GH-inducted increase in muscle mass is not accompanied by increased strength [ 1617 ]. Concerns were also raised that the well documented anti-insulinemic effects of GH and the impact of GH and Androtropin pro ghr secretagogue anti aging faktorok on the progression and, likely also the incidence, of neoplasms would lead to increased risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer in GH-treated individuals [ 1819 ].
Remarkable reduction in the incidence of cancer and diabetes in individuals with genetic resistance to GH details later in this article supports the validity of these concerns.
Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging August 13, Human growth hormone benefits, facts and fiction Can human growth hormones really benefit aging, like the elusive fountain of youth? Inthe Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon arrived in Florida to search for the fountain of youth. If he got any benefit from his quest, it was due to the exercise involved in the search. Few men today believe in miraculous waters, but many, it seems, believe in the syringe of youth. Instead of drinking rejuvenating waters, they inject human growth hormone to slow the tick of the clock.
The benefits of GH therapy in healthy elderly people are controversial and, according to many authors, questionable, unproven, and likely non-existent, with a number of troublesome side effects [ 1415 ]. In contrast, GH therapy can be very beneficial in younger individuals with GHD resulting from traumatic brain injury, treatment of pituitary tumors, or other causes [ 111213202122 ]. The benefits include reduced adiposity, increased muscle mass and improvement in glucose homeostasis, general well-being, and some aspects of cognitive function.
Current consensus of medical professional organizations and governmental regulatory agencies is that, while adult GHD is a valid indication for GH replacement therapy, old age without diagnosable somatotropic axis pathology is androtropin pro ghr secretagogue anti aging faktorok [ 23 ]. Thus, until further large, well-designed studies are conducted, prescribing GH to endocrinologically-normal middle aged or elderly individuals for the purpose of delaying or reversing aging is generally considered futile, unethical, and, in the United States, also illegal [ 24 ].
In this author's opinion, an area which somewhat surprisingly remains understudied, is the anti aging üzleti terv utility of GH in the treatment of sarcopenia, one of visine classic szemcsepp betegtájékoztató components of age-related frailty.
Another relatively unexplored area is the potential benefits of interventions aimed at increasing the release of endogenous GH. Of particular interest in this regard are agonists of the ghrelin receptor [ 2526 ].
However, a major concern in any plans to treat healthy middle-aged or elderly people with GH or agents stimulating GH release in an attempt to slow or reverse aging or some of its symptoms is the evidence that GH may have opposite effects.
The evidence that physiological actions of GH may promote, rather than prevent, aging will be summarized in the next section of this article.
We will also discuss recent studies aimed at identifying mechanisms that appear to be involved. This was diy anti aging arcápoló demonstrated in animals homozygous for mutations which disrupt development of selected lineages of secretory cells in the anterior pituitary leading to deficiency of several adenohypophyseal hormones including GH [ 2728 ].
Growth Hormone and Aging: Updated Review
These observations were soon extended to animals with isolated GHD due to genetic defects in hypothalamic control of GH release [ 2829 ] and to animals with GH resistance due to targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene [ 30 ]. However, the evidence that absence of GH signaling extends longevity of mice is strong, reproducible, and now generally accepted.
Several aspects of the findings in GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice deserve particular emphasis. First, the significant extension of longevity in these animals is reproducible and not limited to a particular laboratory, diet, or genetic background [ 313233 ].
Clin Interv Aging. Published online Mar. All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although growth hormone GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD.
Second, lifespan is extended in both females and males [ 27282930 ]. Third, extension of longevity is associated with a similarly striking extension of healthspan [ 3133 ]. Fourth, the magnitude of the increase in longevity exceeds the effects of most genetic, pharmacological, or dietary interventions that have anti-aging effects in mice.
At the same chronological age, cognitive function of their normal siblings is significantly impaired. Recently, spatial learning and memory were shown to be improved in month-old GH receptor antagonist GHA transgenic mice in comparison to their wild type littermates [ 37 ].
Since GHA transgenic mice were previously shown to have a normal lifespan [ 30 ], these findings indicate that beneficial effects of reduced GH signaling on cognitive function cam be dissociated from extension of longevity and might involve different mechanisms.
In support of the negative association of cognitive function and GH signals, pathological excess of GH has been associated with impairments of learning and memory in different lines of transgenic mice [ 3738 ]. A recent study examined longevity of mice lacking both GH and functional GH receptors [ 39 ]. These included more extreme increases in relative brain weight and in plasma adiponectin levels [ 39 ].
These findings indicate that some of the characteristics of GH-related mutants can be dissociated from longevity.
Early findings of extended longevity of female mice heterozygous for the deletion of IGF-1 receptor [ 40 ] were confirmed and extended in further studies [ 41 ]. A recent report documented extension of lifespan of female mice by inducing IGF-1 deficiency before weaning or during adulthood [ 42 ].
Major increase of longevity was seen in mice in which amount of bioavailable IGF-1 was reduced at the tissue level by germline or adult disruption of the gene coding for pregnancy associated plasma protein A, an enzyme degrading IGF-1 binding protein [ 4344 ].
Growth Hormone and Aging: Updated Review
Significant and reproducible extension of longevity was also produced by pharmacological suppression of the activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin a kinase regulated by GH and IGF1 with a major role in RNA translation, protein synthesis, and cell growth [ 45 ].
Importantly, conclusions concerning pro-aging effects of normal or elevated GH based on studies in mutant, gene knockout, transgenic, or drug treated mice appear to apply to genetically normal mice and to other mammalian species. Multiple studies reported negative association of adult body size a strongly GH- and IGFdependemt trait with longevity in comparisons of different mouse strains, selected lines, and individual animals [ 464748 ].
Similar associations were documented in rats [ 49 ], domestic dogs [ 5051 ], and horses [ 52 ]. Human studies addressing this issue with be discussed later in the article. Detailed characterization of the phenotypic characteristics of these long-lived GH-related mutants [ 313233 ] together with analysis of their profiles of gene expression [ 535455 ] and their responses to dietary, hormonal, surgical, or pharmacological interventions [ 295657585960 ] led to the identification of multiple candidate mechanisms of the extension of healthspan and lifespan in these animals Table 1.